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Showing posts from March, 2024


 When children are between the ages of 8 and 12, parents often ask dermatologists this question. If you’re a parent trying to answer this question, you’ve come to the right place.  In three easy steps, you can figure out how often a child between 8 and 12 years of age needs to shampoo.  Step 1: Consider your child’s traits To determine how often your child needs to shampoo, you first need to consider your child’s: Hair type (straight, curly, oily, dry) Age Activity level Step 2: Find your child’s traits on the following chart Shampoo guidelines: Children 8 to 12 years old Shampoo every other day or daily 12 years of age or starting puberty Oily, straight hair Active: Plays outdoors, plays sports, or swims Exception: Hair is dry and curly Shampoo 1 or 2 times per week 8 to 11 years of age Exception: Hair is dry and curly Shampoo every 7 to 10 days Dry and curly hair, even hair with braids or weaves After heavy sweating or swimming, rinse and condition the hair Step 3: Fine tune to get


 Unique in appearance and structure, Black people's hair is especially fragile and prone to injury and damage. More than half of African American women will cite thinning hair or hair loss as their top hair concern. Fortunately, there is a lot you can do to help minimize damage and keep your hair beautiful. Woman with natural hair smiling while brushing her hair To help keep Black hair healthy, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Wash your hair once a week or every other week. This will help prevent build-up of hair care products, which can be drying to the hair. Use conditioner. Use conditioner every time you wash your hair. Be sure to coat the ends of the hair with conditioner, as the ends are the oldest and most fragile part of your hair. Use a hot oil treatment twice a month. This adds additional moisture and elasticity to your hair. Use a heat protecting product before styling. Adding this to wet hair before styling will help minimize heat damage. Use caution with rel


 In our quest for beautiful hair, we often do things that damage our hair. Damaged hair is fragile, so it tends to break. Hair breakage can leave us with frizzy, unhealthy looking hair. If we continue to damage our hair, we may eventually see thinning hair or even bald spots. The good news is that simple changes can prevent further hair damage. Here you’ll find 10 common hair care practices that can damage hair and dermatologists’ tips that can help you to stop the damage. Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair. Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo from your scalp, let it flow through the length of your hair and resist the temptation to rub it into your hair. Skipping the conditioner. Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Use conditioner after every shampoo. Dermatologists' recommendations for swimmers Pool chemicals can be hard on your hair. The following can help protect your

Possible Complications of Advanced Breast Cancer

 Cancer-related pain Cancer can cause pain all on its own, as tumors grow and take over formerly healthy areas of the body. The cancer can put pressure on organs, nerves, and bones, causing aching or sharp, stabbing pain. Some types of cancer even secrete certain chemicals that can cause painful sensations. Your healthcare team can help determine the best course of treatment for managing pain. This may include over-the-counter pain relief options, prescriptions, or a complementary therapy. Bone complications Breast cancer commonly spreads to the bones, which can lead to a few complications. These complications are often caused by bone resorption, a normal process of breaking down bone. In healthy young people, bone is rebuilt at the same rate as it is broken down. In older adults and those with metastasis to the bones, the resorption process occurs more rapidly. Bone pain A painful, aching feeling in your bones is often the first sign that cancer has spread to the bone. As the conditio

When Breast Cancer Metastasizes to the Brain

 What is brain metastasis? Brain metastasis is when cancer that started in one area, such as the breast, spreads to the brain. The brain is one of the common sites of breast cancer metastasis. The others include the bones, lungs, and liver. A 2017 studyTrusted Source looked at 4,932 people with metastatic breast cancer. Within this population, 8.8 percent had a brain metastasis. For many people, metastases have already been detected in another of the common metastatic sites before they are found in the brain. However, says that about 17 percent of people with metastatic breast cancer have the brain as their only site of metastasis. HEALTHLINE NEWSLETTER Get Our Weekly Breast Cancer Newsletter Join over 100K subscribers in receiving guidance on treatment options, managing symptoms, and the latest on condition breakthroughs. Enter your email Also sign up for our popular Heart Health newsletter Your privacy is important to us What are the symptoms of brain metastasis from

What Causes Triple-Negative Breast Cancer?

 Can triple-negative breast cancer be prevented? There’s no way to completely prevent any kind of breast cancer. You can’t do anything about certain risk factors, such as being born female, age, and genetics. However, you may be able to lower the risk of developing breast cancer by: being physically active maintaining a healthy weight avoiding or limiting alcohol consumption Screening recommendations For women at average risk for breast cancer, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography screening every 2 years starting at age 50 and continuing through age 74. The decision to start screening between ages 40 and 49 is left to individuals to decide. At any age, it’s worth discussing screening options with your doctor. This is especially important if you’re at a higher-than-average risk of developing breast cancer. Genetic testing You might want to consider genetic testing and genetic counseling if you have: a strong family history of breast cancer had ductal c

Can Estrogen Increase Your Risk of Breast Cancer?

 How does estrogen increase your risk of breast cancer? In some cases, doctors may prescribe estrogen for: pregnancy prevention moderate acne female hypogonadism advanced prostate cancer menopause symptom relief Estrogen is a physiological necessity for people assigned male or female at birth. However, it may be harmful in large amounts and may even increase the risk of breast cancer development. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) People assigned female at birth who are postmenopausal and take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, may especially be at risk. HRT is sometimes prescribed to help alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, changes in mood, and night sweats, especially if these symptoms interfere with your quality of life. However, the pros and cons of HRT must be weighed carefully because of the risk of breast cancer. According to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source, estrogen-only HRT may increase your risk of breast ca

What to Know About Breast Lesions

 What is a breast lesion? A breast lesion refers to an area of abnormal breast tissue. These are relatively common findings. In fact, it’s estimated that at least 20 percent of females may develop breast lesions, though males may also be affected. A doctor may discover a breast lesion during an imaging test, such as a routine mammogram, or an ultrasound that was initially ordered for another reason. A doctor or nurse may also discover a breast lesion during a physical exam. In some cases, breast lesions may be self-detected. You might feel an unusual lump or bump during a monthly breast self-examination. Depending on the type of lesion, such abnormal areas of breast tissue may feel rubbery or firm to the touch. Sometimes a breast lesion may cause pain, along with skin changes and nipple discharge. If you detect any lumps, pain, or other changes in your breasts, it’s important to talk with a doctor right away. They may order additional diagnostic exams, such as imaging tests, to help de

How Urgent Is Surgery for Breast Cancer?

 Does time to surgery affect breast cancer outcomes? There’s always going to be some amount of time between diagnosis and surgery. This is because a healthcare team will do preoperative tests to better understand your cancer. It can also sometimes take time to schedule your surgery. There’s no standard for how soon you should have surgery after a breast cancer diagnosis. However, it’s possible that delays in having surgery can affect breast cancer outcomes. A longer delay could potentially lead to the growth or progression of your cancer. A 2016 studyTrusted Source looked at time to surgery in 94,544 people with breast cancer. Time to surgery was divided up into five 3-month intervals: less than 30 days 31 to 60 days 61 to 90 days 91 to 120 days 121 to 180 days The researchers found that overall survival was lower with each increasing delay interval. They noted that while preoperative evaluations are important, a shorter time to surgery should be pursued, if possible. How long is too l

Where Does Breast Cancer Spread?

 What is metastatic cancer? Metastatic cancer is cancer that’s spread to a different part of the body than where it originated. You may also see metastatic cancer referred to as stage 4 cancer. In some cases, the cancer may have already spread by the time of initial diagnosis. Other times, the cancer may spread after the initial treatment. For example, a person who has been treated for early-stage breast cancer may later be diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. Metastasis can occur with almost every type of cancer and is considered advanced-stage cancer. Cancer metastasis may occur months to years after initial breast cancer treatment. There’s also a type of metastatic cancer called oligometastatic cancer. This is where there’s only a few small areas of metastatic cancer. Because this type of metastatic cancer is only found in a few locations, researchers hope it will be more treatableTrusted Source. What’s the difference between metastatic and recurring breast cancer? Recurrent can

What Foods Help Prevent Breast Cancer or Reduce Your Risk?

 Foods that may lower breast cancer risk Keep in mind that many factors are associated with breast cancer development. While improving your diet can improve your overall health and reduce your cancer risk in general, it’s only one piece of the puzzle. Even with a nutrient-rich diet, you still need regular breast cancer screenings like mammograms and manual checks. After all, early detection and diagnosis significantly increase survival rates. Ask a healthcare professional for advice about breast cancer screenings. All the same, research suggests that these foods may lower your risk. 1. Leafy green vegetables These are just a few of the leafy green vegetables that may have anticancer properties: kale arugula spinach mustard greens chard Leafy green vegetables contain carotenoid antioxidants, including beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Higher blood levels of these antioxidants are associated withTrusted Source reduced breast cancer risk. An older 2012 analysisTrusted Source of eight

Symptoms of Late Stage Metastatic Breast Cancer

 Symptoms of metastatic breast cancer If the cancer is confined to the breast, it’s usually easy to treat. If it has spread, it becomes more difficult to treat. That’s why early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are so important. If breast cancer is diagnosed at a later stage, there may be symptoms that appear in addition to those present with earlier stage breast cancer, such as skin changes, nipple discharge, or a lump in the breast. Metastasis in the bones If breast cancer has spread to your bones, symptoms may includeTrusted Source: bone pain pain in the joints, which can worsen after activity weakened bones that are more likely to fracture Metastasis in the brain If breast cancer has spread to your brain, you may experienceTrusted Source: headaches that are sometimes persistent or severe possible seizures behavior changes vision problems nausea and vomiting difficulty walking or balancing difficulty moving certain parts of your body general weakness confusion speech changes

Stage 3 Breast Cancer: Understanding Your Outlook

 How does staging relate to types of breast cancer? Besides the cancer stage, doctors also look at the tumor grade and subtype. Tumors are graded on a scale of 1 to 3 based on how atypical the cells appear compared to the natural cells. The higher the grade, the more aggressive the cancer, meaning that it tends to grow quickly. The subtype is important because treatment and outlook will vary depending on which subtype of breast cancer you have. Subtypes include: HER2-positive ER-Positive triple-negative The TNM system for staging breast cancer In 2018, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) added the letters T, N, and M for anatomic breast cancer staging. This adds more information to a breast cancer diagnosis. Here’s what they mean: T (tumor): The tumor grade shows a higher number for a larger size or density. N (nodes): Nodes refer to lymph nodes and use the numerals 0–3 to explain how many lymph nodes are involved in the cancer. M (metastasis): This refers to how the cancer h

Can Moles Increase Your Risk of Breast Cancer?

 How do moles increase your risk of breast cancer? A 2014 study suggests that women with more moles might be at a higher risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. Researchers analyzed records of 89,902 women in France. Out of that number, 5,956 developed breast cancer. The study found that the women with “very many” nevi were more likely to have a family history of breast cancer. They were also more likely to develop the condition. In another 2014 study with similar findings, researchers analyzed 24 years of health data from 74,523 female nurses. During those years, 5,483 of them developed invasive breast cancer. The nurses with no moles were less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than the ones who had some nevi. Nurses in the study who had 15 or more nevi were 3 percent more likely to develop breast cancer. Researchers from both studies theorized that hormones may play a role in how many moles you develop over your lifetime. Your levels of the hormone estrogen may be lin

Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: Risks and Risk Reduction

 What is hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC)? HBOC syndrome is a type of inherited disorder that increases your riskTrusted Source for breast and ovarian cancers compared to someone without the syndrome. Your risk may also be especially higher before age 50Trusted Source. Like other inherited cancersTrusted Source, HBOC refers to genetic mutations that are passed on from your parents. Having such genetic mutations from hereditary cancer syndromes doesn’t mean you’ll automatically develop cancer, but your risk is much higher. Cancer itself develops when genes mutate. However, most casesTrusted Source are acquired, while HBOC and other family syndromes are inherited. Who’s at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome? While the exact statistics aren’t known, it’s estimated that 1 out of every 400 to 800 people may have HBOC syndrome. HBOC syndrome is genetic. Most peopleTrusted Source with HBOC have inherited genetic mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 ge

Understanding Primary Angiosarcoma of the Breast

 What are the causes and risk factors for angiosarcoma of the breast? Cancer begins with out-of-control growth of abnormal cells. What kicks off this process in primary angiosarcoma of the breast is not clear and risk factors are largely unknown. Angiosarcoma can sometimes run in families. Some research suggests a possible genetic predisposition to develop this type of cancer, but more studies are needed in this area. Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals may also play a role in angiosarcoma. Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is most likelyTrusted Source to affect a young woman with dense breasts and no history of breast cancer. The median age at onset is 40 years. There is no known trigger. Secondary angiosarcoma of the breast is caused by previous radiation treatment or chronic lymphedema due to breast cancer. It has a median onset age of 70 years, and generally happens about 10.5 years after radiation therapy. How is primary angiosarcoma of the breast diagnosed? A screening mammogra

What Types of Breast Cancer Have the Highest Recurrence Rates?

 What types of breast cancer are most likely to recur? Aggressive breast cancers are harder to treat, more likely to spread, and more likely to recur. The two types of breast cancer most likely to recur are inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). These cancers are described in more detail below. IBC: IBC is a rare and invasive type of breast cancer. About 1–5%Trusted Source of all people’s breast cancer is IBC. IBC causes cancer cells to block lymph vessels in your breast tissue. Lymph vessels are the small tubes that drain lymph fluid from your breast. IBC spreads quickly and is usually stage 3 at the time of diagnosis. TNBC: About 10–15%Trusted Source of all people’s breast cancer is TNBC. Cancer cells that cause TNBC don’t have estrogen receptors (ERs) or progesterone receptors (PRs) and don’t make any, or much, of a breast cancer-associated protein called HER2. TNBC spreads faster than most other types of breast cancer and has few treatment option

Melatonin and Breast Cancer: Is it Safe and Can it Help?

 Can melatonin help prevent or slow the spread of breast cancer? Recent research has looked into the possibility that melatonin might help prevent breast cancer, as well as slow its growth and help treatment work more effectively. Here’s what these studies have found. Melatonin and breast cancer prevention A 2018 studyTrusted Source found that the antiestrogenic (a substance that prevents cells from making and using estrogen) and antioxidant properties of melatonin might help lower the risk of breast cancer. Researchers have also found that melatonin provided potential therapeutic use in lowering breast cancer risk. Melatonin and breast cancer treatment In 2021, researchers foundTrusted Source that melatonin use might slow the growth of triple-negative breast cancer, a fast-growing and hard-to-treat type of breast cancer. In a 2022 study, researchers found that melatonin slowed breast cancer growth and that taking melatonin during treatment helped the treatment work more effectively. I

Can Breast Cancer Be Detected in a Complete Blood Count (CBC)?

 How are CBCs and other blood tests used prior to treatment? A complete blood count (CBC) measures the numbers and health of your white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. It’s an important marker of your health, and it’s frequently done before cancer treatments are started. Doctors may also order additional blood tests to help stage your cancer and learn more about your genetics. For example: Blood chemistry tests: These tests look at the levels of certain chemicals in your blood. They’re a good measure of how your organs are functioning and may be used to help stage your cancer. Tumor marker tests: These tests look for the presence of cancer antigens in the blood. A cancer antigen is a protein found in cancer cells. However, cancer isn’t the only thing that can cause these antigens, and not everyone with breast cancer will have cancer antigens. In breast cancer, cancer antigens include cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). HEALTHLINE NEWSLETTER Get

What are the Recommendations for Breast Cancer Screening?

 Having your breasts regularly checked for signs of cancer is an important part of taking care of your health. That’s because many breast cancer screening tests can detect cancer long before you might notice symptoms on your own. Breast cancer screening tests can detect small changes in your breast tissue from year to year. If a screening test identifies a problem, your healthcare team can explore the area in greater depth to see whether the changes are from cancer or something else. When breast cancer is detected and treated in its earliest stages, treatment is generally more successful. The American Cancer Society reports that the 5-year relative survival rate for people whose breast cancer was detected in an early stage is 99 percentTrusted Source. When breast cancer is detected at a later stage, treatment is often more involved, and the 5-year relative survival rate is lower. Keep in mind that these statistics, from 2010 to 2016 data, represent a general trend, and your situation m

Is Breast Cancer Painful?

 Does breast cancer cause pain? Breast pain, also called mastalgia, is not a commonTrusted Source symptom of breast cancer. When breast pain is related to breast cancer: it’s confined to one breast or nipple it’s in a specific area rather than an all-over pain there’s no variation related to the menstrual cycle Pain when cancer has spread to other areas in the body Metastatic breast cancer — cancer that has spread to areas beyond the breast — can cause pain, depending on where it spreads. Examples of this include: Bones: Bone metastasis tends to affect the ribs, spine, pelvis, and long bones in the arms and legs. Pain may come on suddenly and feel like exercise strain or arthritis. However, resting doesn’t relieve it and it keeps getting worse. Bones can become fragile and easily fractured. Lungs: Pain in the affected lung may be accompanied by shortness of breath and other breathing problems. Liver: Liver metastasis can cause pain under the ribs, midsection, or near the right shoulder

Does Breastfeeding Prevent Breast Cancer?

 How does breastfeeding lower your risk of breast cancer? Breastfeeding is a protective factor for breast cancer. It’s unclear exactly why this is the case. However, a combination of the following factors is likely at work: Breastfeeding promotes changes in breast cells that may make breast cancer less likely to occur. The hormonal changes that happen during breastfeeding can delay the return of your period, meaning you’re exposed to less estrogen while breastfeeding. Long-time exposure to estrogen raises breast cancer risk. It’s more likely that people who are breastfeeding engage in healthy lifestyle choices, such as eating a balanced diet, avoiding alcohol, and not smoking. Now let’s look at what some of the research on breastfeeding and breast cancer risk has found. Research into breastfeeding and breast cancer risk Older research from 2002Trusted Source involving data from 47 studies across 30 countries found that the risk of breast cancer decreased by 4.3% for every 12 months of

When to Worry About Breast Pain

 What typically causes breast pain? While anyone can experience breast pain, it’s more common in people with female sex hormones like estrogen and progesterone. These hormones play a big role in the fluctuation of breast tissue structure and size. During significant hormonal shifts like pregnancy and while breastfeeding, breast pain or tenderness is actually expected. Most types of breast pain fit into two categories: cyclic and noncyclic breast pain. Cyclic breast pain is linked to your menstrual cycle and is believed to be caused in part by hormone changes. Pain can develop at different points in this cycle. But it’s most common at the start of the cycle or during ovulation. Cyclic breast pain is barely noticeable for some people and excruciating for others. It’s not uncommon for this pain to be felt in just one breast or the other. It is often a radiating pain that begins near the armpit. Noncyclic breast pain can occur at any time and is not linked to your menstrual cycle. This typ

Understanding the Stages of Breast Cancer

 After a breast cancer diagnosis, staging establishes the extent and characteristics of your breast cancer. Breast cancer staging is complex and considers many different factors, such as the size and location of a breast cancer tumor and whether cancer cells have spread to your lymph nodes or other areas of your body. In this article, we explain how doctors determine breast cancer staging and provide an overview of each stage of breast cancer. How is breast cancer staging determined? According to the American Cancer Society (ACS)Trusted Source, the most common staging system for breast cancer is the one developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. You may also see this called the TNM system, in which: T refers to the size of the tumor N indicates whether or not the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes M denotes if the cancer has spread to more distant lymph nodes or to other organs in your body In 2018, this system was updated to also include other factors called biomarkers

Is Breast Cancer Genetic?

 Except for some types of skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in people assigned female at birth. In this group, the average lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 13%Trusted Source, according to the American Cancer Society. Some individuals have a higher chance of breast cancer. This can be due to genetic factors that increase risk. This article takes a closer look at the genetic and hereditary risk factors for breast cancer and the screening recommendations for those at higher risk. What are the genetic and hereditary risk factors for breast cancer? Cancer is a genetic diseaseTrusted Source. It’s caused by DNA changes, called mutations, in certain genes that cause cells to grow and divide out of control. Most genetic changes that contribute to cancer are acquired during your lifetime. These are called somatic mutations. Somatic mutations happen due to things like the natural aging process or certain lifestyle and environmental factors. What about hereditary bre

What Is Ductal Breast Cancer?

 Ductal breast cancer is the most common type of breast cancer, and breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Approximately 297,790 peopleTrusted Source in the United States will receive a breast cancer diagnosis in 2023. Based on data from 2017 to 2019, about 13%Trusted Source of women will be diagnosed with female breast cancer during their lifetime. Although breast cancer typically affects cisgender women and others assigned female at birth, it’s also possible for people assigned male at birth to develop breast cancer. Ductal breast cancer makes up most cases of male breast cancer, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC)Trusted Source. You’ll notice that the language used to share stats and other data points is pretty binary, fluctuating between the use of “male” and “female” or “men” and “women.” Although we typically avoid language like this, specificity is key when reporting on research participants and clinical findings. Unfortunately, the

Are Transgender Women At Risk for Breast Cancer?

 We still don’t have a lot of information about transgender women’s exact risk for breast cancer. However, the results of a 2019 Dutch studyTrusted Source provided a few valuable pieces of data. The study looked for cases of breast cancer among transgender people taking hormone therapy who received care at the gender clinic of the VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam in the Netherlands between 1972 and 2016. The Centre was chosen because it is a major public health facility, where more than 95 percent of transgender people in the Netherlands receive care. Researchers found that transgender women who receive hormone therapy have an increased risk of breast cancer when compared with cisgender men. Data from the study also shows that the risk increased after being treated with gender affirming hormones for only a short time. Additionally, data from the study indicated that transgender women who developed breast cancer often got it at a younger age than cisgender women. The median age of

What Are the Early Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer?

 Early breast cancer warning signs Design by Maya Chastain Early signs of breast cancer Early on, a person may notice a change in their breast when they perform a monthly breast exam or when minor abnormal pain doesn’t seem to go away. Early signs of breast cancer to look for include: changes in the shape of the nipple breast pain that doesn’t go away after your next period a new lump that doesn’t go away after your next period nipple discharge from one breast that’s clear, red, brown, or yellow unexplained redness, swelling, skin irritation, itchiness, or rash on the breast swelling or a lump around the collarbone or under the arm A lump that’s hard with irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous. Later signs of breast cancer Later signs of breast cancer include: retraction, or inward turning of the nipple enlargement of one breast dimpling of the breast surface an existing lump that gets bigger an “orange peel” texture to the skin poor appetite unintentional weight loss enlarged

When Is a Breast Lump Benign?

 What does a benign breast lump feel like? It’s not always obvious whether a breast lump is benign or cancerous just from a self-exam. However, there are some subtle differences that may indicate a benign breast lump. A benign breast lump can feel many different ways to the touch, depending on the cause. For example, they may: range in feel from soft to firm feel rubbery be movable feel round or oval-shaped with well-defined borders feel tender or slightly painful According to the American Cancer Society (ACS)Trusted Source, breast cancer lumps are more likely to be painless and feel hard with irregular edges. However, the ACS also notes that it’s possible for it to feel tender or painful, soft, or round as well. Because of this, it’s important to see your doctor for any new breast lump that you find during a self-exam. They can do further tests to help determine if your lump is benign or cancerous. How can you tell if a breast lump is benign? You can’t tell for sure that a breast lump

A Comprehensive Guide to Breast Cancer

 What is breast cancer? Cancer occurs when changes called mutations take place in genes that regulate cell growth. The mutations let the cells divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way. Breast cancer is cancer that develops in breast cells. Typically, the cancer forms in either the lobules or the ducts of the breast. Lobules are the glands that produce milk, and ducts are the pathways that bring the milk from the glands to the nipple. Cancer can also occur in the fatty tissue or the fibrous connective tissue within your breast. The uncontrolled cancer cells often invade other healthy breast tissue and can travel to the lymph nodes under the arms. Once the cancer enters the lymph nodes, it has access to a pathway to move to other parts of the body. See pictures and learn more about the structure of the breast. Signs and symptoms of breast cancer In its early stages, breast cancer may not cause any symptoms. In many cases, a tumor may be too small to be felt, but an abnormality can stil

Survival Rates and Outlook for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

 The outlook for people with triple-negative breast cancer depends on the stage and grade of cancer at the time of diagnosis, your age and overall health, and how the cancer responds to treatment. The survival rates for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are typically lower than other forms of breast cancer. This is because TNBC tends to grow quickly and is more likely to have spread by the time it’s diagnosed. It’s also more likely to come back after treatment than other types of breast cancer. TNBC accounts for approximately 10–15%Trusted Source of all breast cancers. This article reviews survival rates for people with TNBC, and the factors that affect those survival rates. Learn more about the symptoms, diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment of triple-negative breast cancer Was this helpful? What are the survival rates for people with triple-negative breast cancer? The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) databaseTrusted Source, maintained by the National Can

Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer

 Radiation therapy is a type of breast cancer treatment that uses high intensity energy beams to destroy cancer cells. Almost 65%Trusted Source of people who receive a breast cancer diagnosis receive radiation therapy treatment, according to a 2023 review. A benefit of radiation therapy is that it can destroy cancer cells within a specific area. But in the process, it can affect nearby healthy tissue. According to the National Cancer InstituteTrusted Source, recent studies suggest proton therapy may be a more safe and effective treatment than traditional radiation therapy. However, there’s still limited long-term research that compares the two. Keep reading to learn more about proton therapy for breast cancer. What is proton therapy for breast cancer? Proton therapy is a type of radiation therapy that uses charged particles called protons. This allows for more precise targeting of the tumor compared with traditional radiation therapy, where the energy comes from X-rays. In traditional

Understanding the Difference Between Invasive and Metastatic Breast Cancer

 Invasive breast cancers are types of cancers that are prone to spreading, either within the breast or beyond. Metastatic breast cancer is a specific stage of cancer indicating the spread to distant parts of the body. Abnormal cells aren’t cancerous, but they may increase your risk of developing cancer. When you have abnormal cells that haven’t spread, the cells are considered noninvasive. This is sometimes referred to as pre-cancer or stage 0 cancer. If abnormal cells move beyond the layer of tissue where they originated, the cells become invasive. When abnormal cells inside the milk ducts or lobules move out into nearby breast tissue, it’s considered a local invasion or invasive breast cancer. These cells can also break free from the primary site and migrate to other parts of the body. When this happens, the cancer isn’t just invasive, it’s also metastatic. Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer is defined as cancer that has spread from the breast to distant parts of the body. Learn mor

One Small Step: How to Speak Up and Self-Advocate During Early Breast Cancer Care

 You are an important member of your healthcare team. Here’s how to be a great self-advocate. Being a self-advocate means taking an active role in your care. Even though your healthcare team has lots of experience treating breast cancer, remember that you are the expert on yourself. You are an important and equal member of the team. Self-advocacy includes asking questions and being involved in your care. You will have many decisions to make. Being educated and informed will help you make the choices that are best for you. Maybe you’ve already advocated for yourself to get the right diagnosis. When breast cancer is diagnosed early, you’ve got more care options and a better outlook. It’s also important to tell your care team if you notice any other changes in your health. It’s always best to catch changes early. Advocating for the best care does not mean you need to know everything about breast cancer. It’s your healthcare professional’s job to know the latest and best treatments. Your j


 There is no need to worry if chewing gum gets stuck in your child’s hair. Simply follow these steps from dermatologists: Find a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive oil. Cover the gum completely with peanut butter or oil using your fingers or an old toothbrush. With peanut butter, the oils in the product make the chewing gum base stiffer and less sticky. Wait a few minutes to allow the product to work. Remove the gum from the hair. Vegetable oil is especially useful when removing gum from eyebrows or eyelashes. Wash your child’s hair as normal so your child does not smell like lunch. If you have questions or concerns about caring for your hair, you should make an appointment to see a dermatologist.


 How you wash your hair and the products you use can go a long way toward maintaining smooth, shiny hair. Follow these simple tips from dermatologists to maintain healthy hair. Wash oily hair more frequently. How often you wash your hair should be based on how much oil your scalp produces. If your scalp is oily, you may need to wash it as often as once a day. If you have chemically treated hair, your hair may be drier, so you may want to wash it less frequently. As you get older, your scalp makes less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in your hair, you may not be shampooing enough. This can lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate on cleaning primarily the scalp, rather than washing the entire length of hair. Washing only your hair can create flyaway hair that is dull and coarse. Use conditioner after every shampoo unless you use a “2-in-1” shampoo, which cleans and conditions hair


 Many common hair care practices can lead to lackluster locks. Everything from rubbing shampoo into your hair rather than your scalp and brushing your hair while it is wet can damage your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy.  Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care begins with learning how to wash the hair without damaging it. When your child is ready to start shampooing, follow these steps to help your child develop healthy hair-care habits.  Wet hair and scalp with warm water. Shampoo works best on wet heads and hair. Pour a quarter-size drop of shampoo in the palm of your child’s hand. Putting the shampoo in the hand first makes it easier to apply. Tell your child to massage the shampoo gently into the scalp. When shampooing, it’s important to wash the scalp rather than the entire length of the hair. Washing only the hair often leads to flyaway hair that is dull and coarse. Rubbing shampoo into the hair can break hairs, leading to unhealthy looking hair. Rinse


 Summer activities can do major damage to your hair. A few simple steps can keep your locks looking healthy all summer long. Mother and young daughter having fun in swimming pool. Though it is part of our routines to make sure to protect our skin before heading out for a fun, sun-filled summer day (and every day!), rarely do we give our hair the same attention. From chlorinated swimming pools to the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays, our hair experiences heightened stress in the warmest months of the year. To avoid damage and provide protection to our locks, it’s essential to understand the risks and take proactive measures. To keep your hair healthy, silky, and shiny, try these board-certified dermatologist-approved swim season tips. What happens to our hair in the sun Hair, similar to skin, is susceptible to damage from the sun — specifically UV damage, says Dr. Farah Moustafa, MD, FAAD, a board-certified dermatologist and assistant professor and director of laser and cosmetics at